Home      Contact
  German English History Bibliography  
    • F/I stratum e • F/I stratum d/2 • F/I stratum d/1 • F/I stratum c • F/I stratum b • F/I stratum a    

The settlement and tombs of the strata c–a/1 of area F/I – stratum b

by Karin Kopetzky
  From the middle of the 13th dynasty (Ph. b/3) onwards (pic. 1) some of the small huts were connected with each other to large edifices, where within the rooms and courtyards burials still can be found. Some of these buildings have very strong walls, which indicate a second floor. The difference between simple huts and larger and better equipped houses hints to the existence of a socially differentiated society.  
pic. 1
  The settlement pottery shows the first signs of a local production, independent from the rest of Egypt. One can recognise amongst the imports (30%) the first markers of the starting MB IIB culture in the Syro-Palestinean regions. Together with the local production of MB II vessels, nearly 40 % of the shapes belong to the MB II culture
(pic. 2, pic. 3, pic. 4).
pic. 2   pic. 3   pic. 4
  The tomb architecture is again more elaborate. Only in this layer can the existence of servant burials be proofed [1]. In these cases, skeletons of females have been found in front of the entrance of male main burials. Most of the burial goods belong to the MB II culture (pic. 5, pic. 6, pic. 7).  
pic. 5   pic. 6   pic. 7

In the following phase b/2 (pic. 8) some of the already existing edifices were again enlarged. The imports of the MB II culture were reduced by 15% compared to the previous phase. Tombs constructed of sun dried sand and mud bricks are favoured towards more simple constructions. No general orientation of the burials has been observed
(pic. 9, pic. 10, pic. 11, pic. 12, pic. 13, pic.14, pic.15, pic.16, pic.17).

pic. 8   pic. 9   pic. 10   pic. 11
pic. 12   pic. 13   pic. 14
pic. 15   pic. 16   pic. 17
  The next phase b/1 (pic. 18) is the stratigraphically youngest layer that was used for living. Again some of the villas were enlarged, while smaller houses were changed to luxurious residences. In contrast to these generous buildings, there was a decline in imports to about 10% of the total pottery of Tell el-Dabca. A fact that is even more astonishing, considering trade had always been the economical backbone of this city.

The dead were buried in separate areas of the behind of their houses. The first hints for family crypts, which became very popular later in the Hyksos period, are also observed. Still, the main part of the burial goods belongs to the MB IIB culture.
pic. 18
  [1] M. BIETAK, Servant Burials in the Middle Bronze Age Culture of the Eastern Nile Delta, EI 20 (1989), 30*–43*.
Bagh, T.
The Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age in Egypt and the Levant. A Study of the so-called Levantine Painted Ware and Related Painted Pottery Styles of the Beginning of the Middle Bronze Age Focusing on Chronology, Dissertation, Kopenhagen 2000.
Bietak, M.
Servant Burials in the Middle Bronze Age Culture of the Eastern Nile Delta, EI 20 (1989), 30*–43*.
Avaris. The Capital of the Hyksos. Recent Excavations at Tell el-Dabca, Dorset 1996.
Bietak, M. und Hein, I.
Pharaonen und Fremde. Dynastien im Dunkel, Ausstellungskatalog des Historischen Museums der Stadt Wien, Wien 1994.
Czerny, E.
Tell el-Dabca IX. Eine Plansiedlung des frühen Mittleren Reiches, UZK XV Wien, 1999.
Kopetzky, K.
Die Datierung der Gräber der Grabungsfläche F/I von Tell el-Dabca anhand der Keramik. Unveröffentl. Diplomarbeit,
Wien 1993.
The MB II B-Corpus of the Hyksos Period at Tell el-Dabca, in: M. BIETAK und E. Czerny (eds.), The Bronze Age in Lebanon. Studies on the Archaeology and Chronology of Lebanon, Syria and Egypt, CChEM, Wien (im Druck).
Maguire, L.C.,
The Circulation of Cypriote Pottery in the Middle Bronze Age. Vienna (in prep.)
Müller, V.,
Offering Practices in the Temple Courts of Tell el-Dabca and the Levant, CChEM 3 (2002).
Schiestl, R.,
Die Palastnekropole von Tell el-Dabca. Die Gräber der Straten d/2 und d/1 des Areals F/I. Dissertation, Wien 2003.